The Cell Cycle

What is The Cell Cycle?

In eukaryotes each cell goes through a ‘cycle’ called the cell cycle. In the cell cycle cells go through stages of growth, synthesis and division. The stages of the cell cycle are referred to as G1, S, G2, M & G0. These Stages are described in this video. It is important that the cell cycle is controlled as uncontrolled cell division results in cancer.

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Cell Membrane

What is the Cell Membrane?

All cells have a cell membrane made of phospholipids and proteins. This video looks at the key structural and functional features of the cell membrane. In other words; what is it made of? and what does it do?

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Mitosis

What is Mitosis?

Eukaryotic cells use mitotic cell division to produce new cells. Mitosis is a process where the DNA in the nucleus is equally divided so that the two daughter cells will each get an identical copy. To help understand what happens in mitosis we have divided it it into four phases – prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. In this video I describe what happens at each phase and also show it visually.

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Haploid vs Diploid

In this video, Mr James Dundon from Anytime Education explains the difference between diploid and haploid cells. He starts with a brief description of homologous chromosomes and how genes code for proteins. He then uses the phenotype of eye colour to explain that humans are diploid creatures. He discriminates between diploid somatic cells and haploid sex cells. He finishes with a brief description of the importance of creating haploid cells by meiosis so the diploid number can be restored during fertilisation.



Posted in Organisms

Random vs Systematic Error

Precision vs Accuracy & Random vs Systematic Error

This video describes the difference between precision and accuracy and the difference between systematic and random errors. These are very important concepts in any scientific research. It is important that you understand these ideas so that you can refer to them correctly in the discussion section of practical reports. I used a different recording technique in this video, still getting the hang of it but I hope it helps!

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Precision, Reliability & Accuracy

Precision vs Accuracy & Random vs Systematic Error

This video describes the difference between precision and accuracy and the difference between systematic and random errors. These are very important concepts in any scientific research. It is important that you understand these ideas so that you can refer to them correctly in the discussion section of practical reports. I used a different recording technique in this video, still getting the hang of it but I hope it helps!

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The ATP Cycle

What is The ATP Cycle?

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is a really important short-term energy storage compound in cells. ATP contains three phosphates and when it is converted to Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) a phosphate is removed and energy is released that cells can use for processes like movement, synthesis and active transport. Cells use ATP continuously, so after it is broken down it needs to be ‘put back together’. This is why we the ATP Cycle is needed. To produce ATP from ADP + P energy is needed. This energy comes from cellular respiration (Aerobic Respiration or Fermentation). Find out more about Cellular Respiration by watching ‘What is Aerobic Respiration’ & ‘What is Fermentation’.

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Fermentation (Anaerobic Respiration)

What is Fermentation (Anaerobic Respiration)?

Fermentation, also known as anaerobic respiration, is the type of cellular respiration that occurs without oxygen. It is far less efficient than aerobic respiration and usually only occurs when oxygen levels are depleted. There are two different processes of fermentation. In plants and yeasts glucose is broken down to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide and release energy. In animals glucose is broken down to produce lactic acid and release energy. See the video for the full chemical equations for each process. The energy released from fermentation is used to fuel the ATP cycle which then provides energy for the cells work.

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Aerobic Respiration

What is Aerobic Respiration?

Aerobic respiration is a type of cellular respiration where glucose is broken down using oxygen to release energy for the cell. Carbon dioxide and water are also produced. The energy that is released in aerobic respiration is used to fuel the ATP Cycle. In eukaryotic cells the latter stages of aerobic respiration occur in mitochondria.

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Photosynthesis

What is Photosynthesis?

Photosynthesis is the transformation of light energy (usually sunlight) to chemical energy (glucose/food). It is a critical process for all living things but it can only be carried out by autotrophs (producers). In photosynthesis carbon dioxide and water are used to produce glucose and oxygen (watch the video for the balanced chemical equation). The process will only occur if there is light energy available and a photosynthetic pigment (chlorophyll) to trap the light.

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